**[Lesson 13] **<< **[CONTENTS] >> [Lesson 15]**

In previous lessons, we have learned how to write codes in Visual Basic 2012 that perform arithmetic operations using standard mathematical operators. However, in order to perform more complex mathematical calculations, we need to use the built-in math functions in Visual Basic 2012. There are numerous built-in mathematical functions in Visual Basic 2012 which we will introduce them one by one in this lesson.

**14.1 The Abs function**

The Abs function returns the absolute value of a given number.
The syntax is Math. Abs (number) * The Math keyword here indicates that the Abs function belong to the Math class. However, not all mathematical functions belong to the Math class. |

**14.2 The Exp function**

The Exp of a number x is the exponential value of x, i.e. ex . For example, Exp(1)=e=2.71828182

The syntax is Math.Exp (number)

Example:
Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click Dim num1, num2 As Single End Sub |

**14.3 The Fix Function**

The Fix function truncates the decimal part of a positive number and returns the largest integer smaller than the number. However, when the number is negative, it will return smallest integer larger than the number. For example, Fix(9.2)=9 but Fix(-9.4)=-9

Example:

Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click

Dim num1, num2 As Single

num1 = TextBox1.Text

num2 = Fix(num1)

Label1.Text = num2

End Sub

**14.4 The Int Function**

The Int is a function that converts a number into an integer by truncating its decimal part and the resulting integer is the largest integer that is smaller than he number. For example

Int(2.4)=2, Int(6.9)=6 , Int(-5.7)=-6, Int(-99.8)=-100

**14.5 The Log Function**

The Log function is the function that returns the natural logarithm of a number. For example, Log(10)=2.302585

Example:

Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click

Dim num1, num2 As Single

num1 = TextBox1.Text

num2 = Math.Log(num1)

Label1.Text = num2

End Sub

* The logarithm of num1 will be displayed on label1

**14.6 The Rnd( ) Function**

Rnd is a very useful function in Visual Basic 2012 . We use the Rnd funciton to write code that involves chance and probability. The Rnd function returns a random value between 0 and 1. Random numbers in their original form are not very useful in programming until we convert them to integers. For example, if we need to obtain a random output of 6 integers ranging from 1 to 6, which makes the program behave like a virtual dice, we need to convert the random numbers to integers using the formula Int(Rnd*6)+1.

Example:

Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click

Dim num as integer

Randomize( )

Num=Int(Rnd()*6)+1

Label1.Text=Num

End Sub

In this example, Int(Rnd*6) will generate a random integer between 0 and 5 because the function Int truncates the decimal part of the random number and returns an integer. After adding 1, you will get a random number between 1 and 6 every time you click the command button. For example, let say the random number generated is 0.98, after multiplying it by 6, it becomes 5.88, and using the integer function Int(5.88) will convert the number to 5; and after adding 1 you will get 6.

**14.7 The Round Function**

The Round function is the function that rounds up a number to a certain number of decimal places. The Format is Round (n, m) which means to round a number n to m decimal places. For example, Math.Round (7.2567, 2) =7.26

Example

Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click

Dim num1, num2 As Single

num1 = TextBox1.Text

num2 = Math.Round(num1, 2)

Label1.Text = num2

End Sub

* The Math keyword here indicates that the Round function belong to the Math class.

**[Lesson 13] **<< **[CONTENTS] >> [Lesson 15]**