In Visual Basic 2022, we can write codes that can perform arithmetic operations using standard arithmetic operators. However, for more complex mathematical calculations, we shall use the built-in mathematical functions in Visual Basic 2022. There are numerous built-in mathematical functions in Visual Basic 2022. Among them are Abs, Exp, Fix, Int, Rnd, Round, sqrt and more. We shall deal with trigonometric functions and Financial Functions in coming lessons. Most mathematical functions belong to the **Math** class in Visual Basic 2022. However, not all mathematical functions belong to the Math class.

The Abs function returns the absolute value of a given number.The syntax is

Math. Abs (Number)

In this example, we shall add a text box control for the user to input his or her number and a label control to display the absolute value of the number. We need to use the Val function to convert text to a numeric value. Rename the textbox as TxtNum and the label as LblAbs.

Private Sub BtnComp_Click(sender As Object, e As EventArgs) Handles BtnComp.Click LblAbs.Text = Math.Abs(Val(TxtNum.Text)) End Sub

The Exp function returns the exponential value of a given number. For example, Exp(1)=e=2.71828182

The syntax is

Math.Exp (Number)

In this example, we shall add a text box control for the user to input his or her number and a label control to display the exponential value of the number. Rename the textbox as TxtNum and the label as LblAbs.

Private Sub BtnComp_Click(sender As Object, e As EventArgs) Handles BtnComp.Click LblExp.Text = Math.Exp(Val(TxtNum.Text)) End Sub

* We use the Val function to convert a string to numeric value

The Fix function truncates the decimal part of a positive number and returns the largest integer smaller than the number. However, when the number is negative, it returns the smallest integer larger than the number. Fix does not belong to the Math class, therefore, we do not use the Math keyword. the syntax is

**Fix(number)**

Private Sub BtnComp_Click(sender As Object, e As EventArgs) Handles BtnComp.Click LblFixNum1.Text = Fix(Val(TxtPosNum.Text)) LblFixNum2.Text = Fix(Val(TxtNegNum.Text)) End Sub

The Int is a function that converts a number into an integer by truncating its decimal part and the resulting integer is the largest integer that is smaller than the number. Int also does not belong to the Math class so there is no need to use the Math keyword.

For example

Int(2.4)=2, Int(6.9)=6 , Int(-5.7)=-6, Int(-99.8)=-100

The Log function is the function that returns the natural logarithm of a number.

The syntax is

Math.Log(Number)

Private Sub BtnComp_Click(sender As Object, e As EventArgs) Handles BtnComp.Click LblLog.Text = Math.Log(Val(TxtNum.Text)) End Sub

Rnd is a very useful function in Visual Basic 2022. We use the Rnd function to write code that involves chance and probability. The Rnd function returns a random value between 0 and 1. Random numbers in their original form are not very useful in programming until we convert them to integers. For example, if we need to obtain a random output of 6 integers ranging from 1 to 6, which makes the program behave like a virtual dice, we need to convert the random numbers to integers using the formula Int(Rnd*6)+1.

The Rnd() function belongs to the **vbMath** class in Visual Basic 2017. The syntax is

vbMath.Rnd()*Number

Private Sub BtnGen_Click(sender As Object, e As EventArgs) Handles BtnGen.Click LblRnd.Text = Int(vbMath.Rnd() * 6) + 1 End Sub

Notice that the Rnd() function belongs to the **vbMath** class in Visual Basic 2017.

In this example, Int(Rnd*6) will generate a random integer between 0 and 5 because the function Int truncates the decimal part of the random number and returns an integer. After adding 1, you will get a random number between 1 and 6 every time you click the command button. For example, let say the random number generated is 0.98, after multiplying it by 6, it becomes 5.88, and using the integer function Int(5.88) will convert the number to 5, and after adding 1 you will get 6.

*We shall learn how to create an animated dice using a Timer control in later lesson

The Round function is the function that rounds up a number to a certain number of decimal places. The syntax is

Math.Round (number, m)

which means to round a number to m decimal places. For example, Math.Round (7.2567, 2) =7.26

Private Sub Button1_Click(sender As Object, e As EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click Label1.Text = Math.Round(Val(TextBox1.Text), 2) End Sub

The sqrt returns the square root of a number. The syntax is as follows:

Math.Sqrt(Number)

Private Sub Button4_Click(sender As Object, e As EventArgs) Handles Button4.Click MsgBox(Math.Sqrt(400)) End Sub

The result is 20

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